Skip to content
Home » Best Bluetooth Headphones For Swimming in 2022

Best Bluetooth Headphones For Swimming in 2022

Are you looking for the most reliable and efficient best bluetooth headphones for swimming? If the answer to the question is yes, then you are in luck because your good luck has brought you to the best possible place. We are here to save your time and relieve you of the stress of going through a plethora of reviews.

It is quite a common phenomenon to be confused over which is the best bluetooth headphones for swimming to buy. This dilemma arises due to the existence of various types of best bluetooth headphones for swimming that are present in the market. To reduce your conundrum, we have prepared a comprehensive guide of how you may pick the top best bluetooth headphones for swimming available in the market.

Top Rated Best Bluetooth Headphones For Swimming in 2022

Rank Product Name Score
1
Bone Conduction Waterproof Bluetooth Headphones - Ultralight Swimming Headphones IP68 Waterproof Bluetooth 5.1 Open Ear Wireless Sports Headset with MP3 Play 16G Memory for Running Swimming (Grey)
Bone Conduction Waterproof Bluetooth Headphones - Ultralight Swimming Headphones IP68 Waterproof Bluetooth 5.1 Open Ear Wireless Sports Headset with MP3 Play 16G Memory for Running Swimming (Grey)
8.1/10
2
Open Ear Headphones,Wireless Bone Conduction Headset Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic - MP3 Play Built-in 16G Memory,IP68 Waterproof Sweatproof - Music Answer Phone Call for Swimming Skiing Driving Bicycling
Open Ear Headphones,Wireless Bone Conduction Headset Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic - MP3 Play Built-in 16G Memory,IP68 Waterproof Sweatproof - Music Answer Phone Call for Swimming Skiing Driving Bicycling
9.4/10
Sale3
H2O Audio Sonar Underwater Waterproof Headphones with MP3 and Bluetooth for Swimmers
H2O Audio Sonar Underwater Waterproof Headphones with MP3 and Bluetooth for Swimmers
9.5/10
Sale4
TOZO T10 Bluetooth 5.3 Wireless Earbuds with Wireless Charging Case IPX8 Waterproof Stereo Headphones in Ear Built in Mic Headset Premium Sound with Deep Bass for Sport Black
TOZO T10 Bluetooth 5.3 Wireless Earbuds with Wireless Charging Case IPX8 Waterproof Stereo Headphones in Ear Built in Mic Headset Premium Sound with Deep Bass for Sport Black
9.3/10
5
Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Wireless Bluetooth Swimming Headphones with Noise Cancelling Mic for Swimming,Diving,Running,Cycling,Gym,Workout
Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Wireless Bluetooth Swimming Headphones with Noise Cancelling Mic for Swimming,Diving,Running,Cycling,Gym,Workout
8.2/10
Sale6
Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Sports Swimming Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 Earbuds with Noise Cancelling MIC for Sport,Swimming,Running,Gym,Workout
Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Sports Swimming Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 Earbuds with Noise Cancelling MIC for Sport,Swimming,Running,Gym,Workout
8.5/10
7
Bone Conduction Headphones Bluetooth IPX8 Waterproof Swimming Headphones, 16G MP3 Player 2 Pack Magnetic Charging Cables Wireless Open-Ear Headphones Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic for Running Driving, Blue
Bone Conduction Headphones Bluetooth IPX8 Waterproof Swimming Headphones, 16G MP3 Player 2 Pack Magnetic Charging Cables Wireless Open-Ear Headphones Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic for Running Driving, Blue
9.9/10
8
Waterproof Bone Conduction Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 IP68 Headset with Mic Built-in 16 GB MP3 Player Open Ear for Swimming Running Driving Gym (Grey)
Waterproof Bone Conduction Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 IP68 Headset with Mic Built-in 16 GB MP3 Player Open Ear for Swimming Running Driving Gym (Grey)
9.1/10
9
Donerton Wireless Earbuds, Bluetooth 5.0 Headphones IP8 Waterproof Earbuds, 80 Playtime, in Ear Earphones with Mic, Deep Bass 3D Stereo, Charging Case, Sports, Work Out, Easy Pairing
Donerton Wireless Earbuds, Bluetooth 5.0 Headphones IP8 Waterproof Earbuds, 80 Playtime, in Ear Earphones with Mic, Deep Bass 3D Stereo, Charging Case, Sports, Work Out, Easy Pairing
9.7/10
10
H2O Audio Interval Swim Headphones for Apple Watch Series 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Waterproof IPX8, in-Ear Stereo Earbuds, Noise Cancelling, No Drag Short Cord, Great for Swimming, Running and Sports Activities
H2O Audio Interval Swim Headphones for Apple Watch Series 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Waterproof IPX8, in-Ear Stereo Earbuds, Noise Cancelling, No Drag Short Cord, Great for Swimming, Running and Sports Activities
8.7/10

1 Bone Conduction Waterproof Bluetooth Headphones - Ultralight Swimming Headphones IP68 Waterproof Bluetooth 5.1 Open Ear Wireless Sports Headset with MP3 Play 16G Memory for Running Swimming (Grey)

  • Bone Conduction Headphones: Open Ear design keeps you aware of your surroundings and keeps you safe and comfortable in outdoor training. Bone conduction technology uses vibrations to transmit sound directly to the inner ear through the cheekbones for a premium audio experience.
  • Ultralight & Comfortable: Bone conduction bluetooth headphones are ergonomically designed that fit snugly behind your ears, Ideal for long-term wear avoid ear swelling, that won't slip during long runs workouts or swimming. Made of ultra-light titanium for comfort and the best sports experience
  • IP68 Waterproof Rating: IP68 rated headphones are fully waterproof, dust-proof, moisture-resistant, making them the perfect workout companion for any sports, fitness, or running enthusiast. Designed to withstand rain and swimming, you can swim, snorkel, fish and boat without taking off the headphones, enjoy the fun of sports
  • Bluetooth/MP3 Dual Mode: Built-in 16 GB mass storage card can be used as an MP3 player, allowing you to enjoy your favorite music directly from the headphones without additional equipment. The latest Bluetooth 5.1 chip brings stronger,faster,more stable connections on the mobile side. Tips: underwater will affect the transmission of Bluetooth signals; please do not use Bluetooth mode when swimming; MP3 mode with our waterproof earbuds will give you the best swimming experience
  • Versatile Headphones: Powerful Bluetooth 5.1 chip provides a convenient and stable connection. You can use it on both iOS and Android Bluetooth devices. It pairs easily with smartphones, tablets, Mac and PC, and laptops. Quickly double-tap the multi-function key to switch between Bluetooth and MP3 modes,triple-tap to call a voice assistant (such as Siri).

2 Open Ear Headphones,Wireless Bone Conduction Headset Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic - MP3 Play Built-in 16G Memory,IP68 Waterproof Sweatproof - Music Answer Phone Call for Swimming Skiing Driving Bicycling

  • 🔥🔥【Bone Conduction】New generation of bone conduction headphones adopts an open-ear design concept, leading design style and material, and transmits sound through the cheekbones to the inner ear through vibration. Help the ears to get rid of the burden of swelling, and feel comfortable and the surrounding environment when listening.
  • 🌊🌊【Waterproof】IP68 certified waterproof, dustproof and sweatproof earphones, you can swim, snorkel, fish, and boat without taking off the earphones. You can capture your adventure and have fun without worrying about water damage.
  • 🎶🎶【Bluetooth 5.1 Wide Adaptation】 Bone Conduction Headphones adopts the latest Bluetooth 5.1 technology and is suitable for most Bluetooth devices. The connection speed is faster, State is more stable, no cable restriction. Maximum connection distance can reach 50 ft, Convenient for daily use.
  • 🎁🎁【Two Modes】This bone conduction headphones has two technologies: SD card and Bluetooth. Built-in 16GB large-capacity memory card,MP3 player allows you to enjoy your favorite music directly from the headset without additional equipment. The latest Bluetooth 5.1 chip brings a stronger, faster and more stable connection. Supports various Bluetooth compatible devices, iOS and Android Bluetooth smartphones or tablets, and Mac and PC computers and laptops.
  • 🎧🎧【Voice Assistant Function & Microphone】The intelligent voice assistant function can enable related functions (such as Siri) on the multi-function key of the headset, which brings great convenience and further brings a good experience and safety to users. At the same time, built-in microphone for hands-free calling.Tips: water will affect the transmission of bluetooth signal, please use MP3 mode when swimming.

Sale3 H2O Audio Sonar Underwater Waterproof Headphones with MP3 and Bluetooth for Swimmers

  • CLEAR SOUND: H2O Audio's bone conduction technology delivers clear sound under water. Fool-proof design that is easy to use.
  • EASY TO USE: You do not need to be TECH SAVY!! The SONAR is fool-proof and easy to use. Small and compact design makes it seamless for your swim. Big buttons with extra raised markings. To reduce play volume short press the '- ' button.
  • MP3 PLAYER WITH BLUETOOTH BUILT-IN: The SONAR headphones have a built-in MP3 player that fits ALL your music. Connect with MAC and PC with ease and download your music. SONAR supports Apple iTunes music format (.m4a) and .MP3. Now you can simply copy/paste or drag&drop any music from your computer. 8Gb of storage for thousands of songs.
  • SMART WATCH COMPATIBLE: Connect your Smart Watch with the SONAR. Attach the watch on your swim goggles. *NOTE: SONAR Bluetooth range under water is about 4". Smart watch MUST be attached to your goggles. Wireless range on air is 30ft/10m.
  • 100% WATERPROOF: H2O Audio Waterproof technology ensure that SONAR performs when submerged to 12ft (3m). Waterproof Rating: IPX8.

Sale4 TOZO T10 Bluetooth 5.3 Wireless Earbuds with Wireless Charging Case IPX8 Waterproof Stereo Headphones in Ear Built in Mic Headset Premium Sound with Deep Bass for Sport Black

  • [Stereo sound quality] TOZO T10 Earbuds' 8mm large size speaker driver (the drive area is 1.77 times than the normal drive area) delivers powerful bass( lowest 16Hz), mellow midrange, and clear treble(up to 20kHz). Reproducing your music vividly.
  • [ BLUETOOTH 5.3] Features with the advanced Bluetooth 5.3 technology, TOZO T10 Earbuds support HSP HFP A2DP AVRCP, which provides instant pairing and stable transmission without interruptions.
  • [One step pairing] Simply take 2 headsets out from the charging case, and they will connect each other automatically and then only one step easily enter mobile phone Bluetooth setting to pair the earbuds.
  • [IPX8 waterproof] Earbuds and charging case inner Nano-coating makes it possible to waterproof for 1 meters deep for 30 minutes. Waterproof and sweatproof lastest technology can effectively prevent from the damage of the splash by sweat and raindrops.
  • [Charge on the go] Playtime lasts for over 6 hours from single charge and total 30 hours with charging case. Enjoy fast charging, to fully charge the rechargerable case only 1.5 hours via fast charge USB-C cable or less than 2 hours via wireless charger. Providing convenient charging way with no strings attached.

5 Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Wireless Bluetooth Swimming Headphones with Noise Cancelling Mic for Swimming,Diving,Running,Cycling,Gym,Workout

  • 🎵【IPX8 WATERPROOF SWIMMING HEADPHONES】--Waterproof headphones are designed for long period use in water.With IPX8 waterproof technology efficiently protect the MP3 player and wireless bluetooth headphones from sweat fitness and swimming underwater. Wireless swimming headphones suitable for diving,swimming,running,cycling,workout.The inner waterproof coating make bluetooth earbuds possible to immerse in water of 1.5-5 meters deep for 30 minutes without affecting the performance
  • 🎵【8GB MP3 PLAYER】--Waterproof swimming headphones built-in 8GB memory can store enough songs in MP3 format use as a MP3 player and allows you to enjoy your favorite music directly from the headset without additional equipment.Simply copy/paste or drag and drop the downloaded music file from your computer to the headset.
  • 🎵【COMFORTABLE & SWEAT RESISTANT】--Waterproof wireless bluetooth headphones to keep you motivated,a secure fit that won’t shift or fall out during long hours of workout.Equipped with 3 pairs different sizes ear caps which can stay on your ears and get a suitable fitting.Ergonomic arc waterproof headphones make your ears relax and focus on doing exercise.No worry about sweating or even raining
  • 🎵【BLUETOOTH 5.0 & STEREO SOUND QUALITY】--Bluetooth waterproof swimming earbuds adopt the most advanced bluetooth 5.0 technology,quick and automatic wireless connection(Bluetooth range can reach up to 33ft in an open space).Built-in noise cancelling mic makes calls clear and stable.Stereo sound quality and deep bass bring you an extraordinary music experience
  • ☞【Two Modes】IPX8 waterproof swimming headphones has two modes: local player and Bluetooth. local player Mode (MP3 player ) designed for underwater swimming. Bluetooth Mode make you enjoy music when running, cycling, workout. NOTE: Before swimming,MUST switch to local player(MP3 mode)to enjoy music underwater freely.(Important Tips:As the water interferes with the connection,Bluetooth does NOT work underwater,Please understand and know this.)

Sale6 Waterproof Headphones for Swimming,IPX8 Waterproof 8GB MP3 Player Sports Swimming Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 Earbuds with Noise Cancelling MIC for Sport,Swimming,Running,Gym,Workout

  • 【IPX8 WATERPROOF BLUETOOTH HEADPHONES】with IPX8 waterproof technology efficiently protect sport wireless bluetooth headphones from sweat fitness or in rainy days even swimming underwater.High level water-resistant make these wireless earphones suitable for sports such as bathing,swimming,running,skiing.The inner waterproof coating make bluetooth earbuds possible to immerse in water of 1.5 meters deep for 50 minutes without affecting the performance.
  • 【8GB WATERPROOF MP3 PLAYER】Waterproof headphones for swimming built-in 8GB memory which is enough to store enough songs in MP3 format.allows you to enjoy your favorite music directly from the headset without additional equipment.
  • 【BLUETOOTH 5.0 & HIFI STEREO SOUND QUALITY】This wireless waterproof MP3 player headset adopt the most advanced bluetooth 5.0 technology,quick and automatic wireless connection.Built-in noise cancelling mic for Hifi stereo sound and deep bass sound.Clear high & low volume,makes calls clear and stable.
  • 【Two Modes】IPX8 waterproof swimming headphones has two modes: local player and Bluetooth. local player Mode (MP3 player ) designed for underwater swimming. Bluetooth Mode make you enjoy music when running, cycling, workout.Built-in160mAh polymer lithium battery,offer 8 hours of music playing time/talking time after 1.5 hours super quick full charge.
  • 【IMPORTANT TIPS & QUALITY AFTER-SALES】As the water interferes with the connection,bluetooth does NOT work under water. Please switch to MP3 mode before swimming underwater (you need to download music to the headphones first,file format supported by this headphones is MP3) to use for swimming or for any other underwater activities.

7 Bone Conduction Headphones Bluetooth IPX8 Waterproof Swimming Headphones, 16G MP3 Player 2 Pack Magnetic Charging Cables Wireless Open-Ear Headphones Bluetooth 5.1 with Mic for Running Driving, Blue

  • IPX8 Waterproof Bone Conduction Headphones for Swimming: The swimming headphones have an IPX8 waterproof protection rating making it submersible down to 20 meters without affecting performance. Water serves as an interference so the signal gets blocked out, please switch to MP3 mode while underwater.
  • 16G Larger Capacity MP3&Bluetooth Dual Modes: Quickly double-click the MFB to switch between Bluetooth and MP3 modes. Swimming headphones bluetooth underwater can be used as an MP3 player with 16GB of memory, storing approximately 5,000 songs. Simply download music to your computer, then drag and drop songs. Please download and use MP3 converter before uploading music if they're not MP3 or WAV format.
  • 2 Magnetic Charging Cables & 2 Pairs Earplugs: The waterproof headphones for swimming have a strong magnetic dock for charging and transferring music. 2 charging cables to avoid accidental loss. 1.5 hours to fully charge. One pair of corded silicone earplugs are designed for swimming and submerse to prevent water from entering the ear. And enjoying incredible sound quality with another pair of earplugs.
  • Built-in Mic & Open-ear Design: Built-in microphone captures voices clearly and you can take hands-free calls or activate voice assistants (such as Siri). In addition, it's easy to play and pause music, skip tracks, take or reject calls. The open-ear design allows you being able to stay aware of your surroundings while you're immersed in your favorite music. The headphones weigh only 0.9oz and are still light and comfortable to wear even for long training runs.
  • Premier Sound Quality & Bluetooth 5.1: Enjoy the higher sound quality through waterproof earbuds for swimming, running, fitness, hiking, cycling, driving. The latest Bluetooth 5.1 chip brings a powerful, faster, and more stable connection. The open ear wireless bone conduction headphones are suitable for Bluetooth-ready iOS and Android smartphones, laptops, Mac, tablets, and so on.

8 Waterproof Bone Conduction Headphones Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 IP68 Headset with Mic Built-in 16 GB MP3 Player Open Ear for Swimming Running Driving Gym (Grey)

  • 【Bone Conduction Headphones】Works by vibrations, sound transmit via cheekbone to inner ear. Open-Ear design helps you stay alert to your surroundings, avoid danger meanwhile use it. There is almost no noise during sound transmission. Bone conduction saves many steps of sound wave transmission, can achieve clear sound reproduction in a noisy environment.
  • 【IP68 Level Waterproof for Swimming 】 IP68 level waterproof for swimming, effectively protect the bone conduction headset underwater. The highest level of waterproof technology enables headsets to be used in 2 meters of water without affecting performance. Please use mp3 mode when swimming, water will affect the Bluetooth connection
  • 【Bluetooth and Mp3 Player】SD card & Bluetooth V5.0 Technology. Built-in 16GB Memory Card, included MP3 player. Allow you to enjoy your favorite music directly from the headphones. The latest bluetooth 5.0 chip brings stronger and faster connection. And it is truly wireless to make yourself free from cable mess. Supporting a variety of Bluetooth-compatible devices, iOS and Android Bluetooth-ready smartphones or tablets and Mac and PC computers and laptops.
  • 【High-Fidelity Sound with Mic】This headphones with mic offer dynamic range and deep bass to give you premier sound quality for any music genre and feature a built-in mic for hands-free phone calls.
  • 【Long battery life】This bone conduction headphones standby time 10 days and play time 6-8 hours,suitable for outdoor or indoor activities.

9 Donerton Wireless Earbuds, Bluetooth 5.0 Headphones IP8 Waterproof Earbuds, 80 Playtime, in Ear Earphones with Mic, Deep Bass 3D Stereo, Charging Case, Sports, Work Out, Easy Pairing

  • bluetooth 5. 0 und hd mic: adopt the advanced bluetooth 5. 0 technology. Donerton bluetooth earbuds support ultra stable connection, faster paring and universal compatibility. provides in call stereo sound. you can feel free to chat with your firend anytime.
  • hifi stereo sound quality: c5s wireless headphones offers a truly natural and authentic sound performance with focus on getting a clear midrange and a balanced bass and treble performance.
  • 80 hours playtime: true wireless earbuds can last for over 5 hours playtime on a single charge. while on the go the portable charging case power can last up to 80 hours ,recharge up to 16 times full charge for the wireless headphones, single ear standby time 150 hours. donerton sport earbuds are very suitable for outdoor sports, workouts whole day!
  • ip8 waterproof : this ip8 tested waterproof headphones keep you safe in the heavy rain or sweat, you can wear it to take shower or using in rainy days, and can even be rinsed clean under the tap.
  • one step pairing: pick up 2 earbuds from charging box they will connect each other automatically, then only one step easily enter mobile phone bluetooth setting to pair the earbuds.

10 H2O Audio Interval Swim Headphones for Apple Watch Series 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Waterproof IPX8, in-Ear Stereo Earbuds, Noise Cancelling, No Drag Short Cord, Great for Swimming, Running and Sports Activities

  • APPLE WATCH ACCESSORY: Get the most out of your workout with the Interval Swim Headphones by H2O Audio. Specifically designed to be use with the Apple IWatch Series 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and SE. Compatible with all face sizes 38mm, 40mm, 42mm and 44mm. BLUETOOTH: Please do not pair the Interval with your iPhone. Apple Watch will use offline play.
  • DESIGNED FOR SWIMMERS: The headphones come with an ergonomic sheared shape which sits flush with the ear and is designed to promote proper alignment and fit, plus less drag in the water, the integrated goggle loops make it easy to attach and remove the case from almost any swim goggles. Includes five sets of Elastomer earplugs (XS-XL) and one set of “Tree Tip” earplugs
  • BASS AMPLIFIED SOUND: The Surge earphones provide a premium sound quality with more bass than any other waterproof earbuds on the market, while sound-isolating; the watertight earplugs provide clear warm sound and dynamic bass response. Powered by Surge’s waterproof neodymium drivers, which delivers plenty of volume without any distortion
  • 100% WATERPROOF: The Interval is the only waterproof headphone system for Apple Watch designed just for swimming, with the highest waterproof rating of IPX8. H2O Audio technology ensures these headphones can withstand heavy perspiration, and complete submersion up to 12ft / 3.6 meters underwater
  • Optional MY SWIM TRACKER APP: Download our free My Swim Tracker Apple App to log all your swim workouts. My Swim Tracker will keep track of your PRs, distance and provide audio lap counting. It will coach you and encourage you to reach your goals. Complete your Apple Activity Rings and enjoy lap swimming

How to Choose the Best Bluetooth Headphones For Swimming

With so many sellers out there, it can be hard to decide who is the best one for you. There may even seem like every single person has different requirements! But don’t worry because we’ve got your back – here are seven things that all shoppers should consider before making any purchase:

1. Price

To avoid paying too much for a good product, it’s important to consider the price. If you can’t afford an expensive item and would rather buy something cheaper or wait until there is a promotion on sale then remember that sometimes quality matters more than cost! One thing shoppers need realize though: not everything comes at an affordable rate no matter how cheap prices seem so always read carefully before buying anything new online-you never know what kind of joke someone might be trying to pull where their products’ real value falls short from its wholesome selling points due solely because some unscrupulous company makes use low grade materials while claiming theirs are high end items made by professionals with years experience etcetera.

2. Brand

When it comes to fashion, there is a lot of debate on what brands are worth investing in. Some people think that major or well-known companies have higher quality products because you know exactly how your purchase will turn out if they sell durable goods from time tested designers with established reputable names like Ralph Lauren and Nike Inc., while others prefer buying unknown brands where anything can happen since no one has tried them before so nothing would be lost even if something goes wrong during delivery etcetera. The best way for me personally was going through both sides until finally landing somewhere between these two extremes: buy a recognizable name.

3. Function

What are you looking for in a bluetooth headphones for swimming? Will the one that suits your needs perform all of these tasks like a pro and with ease. If it doesn’t, then don’t buy into its claims! Check out product descriptions carefully because sometimes companies modify products to cater different customer demographics or target markets – so make sure when buying anything new from them, even if they say “exactly what I wanted!” All this means is paying attention; always do some research before making purchases.

4. Customer Reviews

One of the best ways to find out if a purchase is right for you in terms of product quality would be by reading through customer testimonials. You should look at both positive and negative reviews so that they can give all benefits as well side-effects when purchasing products online like this one, bluetooth headphones for swimming – For All Budgets!

5. Pros and Cons

If you’re uncertain if your purchase is worth the cost, consider all of its benefits and drawbacks. Is this product going to provide me with what I want out of it? Or am i simply buying into something because other people think its great too (based on reviews)? You could also look at a description or even customer feedback when brainstorming pros/cons. If we carefully weigh these aspects before making any final decisions regarding our purchases then hopefully everything will turn out perfectly in due course!

6. Service

You should always read the company’s policies when buying items. Make sure they’re reliable, and if something happens down the line- will you still be able to get help?

7. Warranty

In the end, a warranty is important for any major purchase. However it’s especially critical with expensive items because you can’t afford to buy an item again if something goes wrong within one month of owning them. If there isn’t even confidence in quality from manufacturer after selling products then consider their unwillingness as reason not too trust them and jump ship before things get worse!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.